POETS, COURTESANS, AND MONKS 137 courtesans was quite common, even among highly respected gentlemen. In this period we find that not only Han Chi and Ouyang Shiu left poems about courtesans, but even the austere premiers Fan Chungyen and Szema Kuang wrote this type of sentimental poetry. The great patriot general, Yo Fei, also wrote a poem concerning female singers at a certain dinner. Onfy the strict, puritanical neo-Confucianists, whose code of life was summed up in the one word ching ("reverence", an equivalent of "fear of God"), highly disapproved. They had a more stringent code of morals, and a greater respect for the devil. Cheng Yi, who was Su Tungpo's political enemy, used to warn Emperor Tsehtsung, when the latter was only a child of twelve, about the lascivious charm of women. The young child was so sick of such warnings that when he reached eighteen, one woman alone convinced him that she was right and the puritan was wrong. Once one of Cheng Yi's disciples wrote two lines on his "dreaming soul going out of bounds" and visiting a woman in his sleep, and Cheng Yi cried in horror: "Devil's talk! Devil's talk I" Chu Shi, the great neo-Confucianist of the twelfth century, had the same horror of the seductive power of women. Once a good man, Hu Chuan, wrote two lines on the occasion of his pardon after ten years of exile: "For once let me get drunk to celebrate the pardon, with a girl's sweet dimpled face by my side." Chu Shi was moved to express Jiimself as follows: "Despite ten years' exile and tribulation, The sight of a dimple caught him unaware. Nothing should be more feared than this damnation. How many lives are wrecked by woman's snare!" In contrast, Su Tungpo took a more humorous view of sex. In his Journal he wrote, later, at Huangchow: "Yesterday I went to Ankuo Temple with chief magistrate Tang Chuntsai and deputy magistrate Chang Kungkwei, and in the con- versation we talked about the art of prolonging life. I said: 'All is easy except continence.' Mr. Chang said: 'Su Wu was a great man. He went to Mongolia, lived like a Mongolian, and went through all hardships without a grumble. He was quite a philosopher, wasn't he? Yet he could not help marrying a Mongolian woman and having children by her. It must be, therefore, more difficult to practice continence eveiiv in marriage. This thing is really difficult to overcome.' We all laughed at the remark, I am putting this down because there is a lot of sense in it."